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دانلود مجموعه مقالات Biophilic Cities

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دانلود مجموعه مقالات Biophilic Cities

مجموعه 3 مقاله با عناوین زیر تقدیم نگاهتون  میگردد:

Urban Biophilic Theories uponReconstructions process for Basrah City in Iraq

Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities

Biophilic Urbanism  Inviting Nature Back to Our Communities and Into Our Lives

 

 

Article

Biophilic Cities Are Sustainable, Resilient Cities

 

Timothy Beatley 1

and Peter Newman 2,* [OrcID]

1

Department of Urban and Environmental Planning, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA

2

Curtin University Sustainability Policy (CUSP) Institute, Curtin University, Fremantle, WA 6160, Australia

*

Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.

Received: 5 June 2013; in revised form: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 16 July 2013 / Published: 5 August 2013

Abstract: There is a growing recognition of the need for daily contact with nature, to live happy, productive, meaningful lives. Recent attention to biophilic design among architects and designers acknowledges this power of nature. However, in an increasingly urban planet, more attention needs to be aimed at the urban scales, at planning for and moving towards what the authors call “biophilic cities”. Biophilic cities are cities that provide close and daily contact with nature, nearby nature, but also seek to foster an awareness of and caring for this nature. Biophilic cities, it is argued here, are also sustainable and resilient cities. Achieving the conditions of a biophilic city will go far in helping to foster social and landscape resilience, in the face of climate change, natural disasters and economic uncertainty and various other shocks that cities will face in the future. The paper identifies key pathways by which biophilic urbanism enhances resilience, and while some are well-established relationships, others are more tentative and suggest future research and testing.

Keywords:

biophilic cities; sustainable cities; resilient cities

  1. Introduction: The Emergence of a Biophilic Perspective on Cities

There is increasing interest on the part of architects, planners and urban designers in biophilic design and much new writing and literature appearing in the last several years. Biophilic design holds that good design, at the building, site, city and regional scale, must include nature and natural elements. It is based especially on the concept of biophilia, popularized by Harvard myrmecologist and sociobiologist E.O. Wilson. Wilson argues that humans have co-evolved with nature and that we carry with us our ancient brains and our need to connect with and affiliate with nature, to be happy and healthy. Wilson defines biophilia as “the innately emotional affiliation of human beings to other living organisms. Innate means hereditary and hence part of ultimate human nature”. To Wilson, biophilia is really a “complex of learning rules” developed over thousands of years of evolution and human-environment interaction [1,2,3].

And there is now a growing body of evidence of the positive physical and mental health benefits associated with greenery and green elements in living and work environments. Research at the building scale shows strong positive relationships between the presence of natural daylight, fresh air and greenery, with increases in worker happiness and productivity [4]. Similar studies show the positive power of schools that incorporate natural daylight and other green elements, to raise test scores of the students [5]. Considerable evidence and research, dating to the 1980’s, has suggested the healing and recuperative power of nature in hospitals and health care facilities (including Ulrich’s [6] classic study showing recovery from gall bladder surgery is significantly enhanced by views of nature). Evidence of the power of the green qualities and features is also emerging at neighborhood community scales. Green neighborhoods and more natural living environments have been associated with reductions in stress and increased levels physical and mental health [7,8,9,10,11]. An important study in The Lancet concludes that populations with greater exposure to green space experience lower mortality and that green space exposure can help reduce health inequalities [12]. The presence of nature, moreover, is associated with improvements in positive mood, cognitive performance and even creativity [13]. A recent pilot study using portable electroencephalography (EEG) caps further demonstrates the value of nature in reducing mental fatigue [14]. Nature has immense power to restore, heal and fascinate.

This emerging evidence and research has helped in turn to increase interest among urban designers and architects in designing buildings and facilities that enhance nature. While much energy and attention of late has been focused on biophilic design, this has largely assumed a focus on the building or site. Beatley [15] and others argue that while integrating green and natural elements into building design is critical, there is much value in fact in getting people out of buildings and to thinking more holistically about the natural qualities and conditions of the larger urban environments in which these buildings sit.

Cities and urban environments contain a variety of ecological and green assets, from parks to trees to rivers and riparian habitats, and increasingly, efforts are being made to further enhance the green elements and features of these living and work environments. Daylighting urban streams (taking them out of underground pipes and returning them to the surface), installing trails, planting new trees and forests, community gardens, installing green walls and vertical gardens, are among the many ways in which cities and urban environments can become greener. Biophilic urbanism can and must happen at different scales, and Table 1 presents some examples of biophilic design interventions that are possible.

Increasingly cities have developed and are implementing a host of biophilic programs, policies and initiatives. Cities like Chicago and Portland have developed extensive incentives and subsidies for installation of green features, such as green rooftops. Furthermore, increasingly, green features, such as green rooftops, are mandated, as in Toronto, for roofs over a certain size. Some cities, such as Seattle, have established so-called Green Factor standards, mandating minimum green and landscaping elements for certain types of new development, and other cities, such as Chicago, Baltimore and Montreal, are encouraging the greening of alleyways and other otherwise grey spaces in the city. Many cities have established extensive treeing programs and set ambitious tree-planting goals, with the cities of New York, Los Angeles and Houston each setting the goal of a million new trees. Furthermore, many American cities, such as Chicago and San Francisco, have modified their planning and zoning codes to permit urban agriculture.

Table 1. Biophilic city design elements across scales. Modified from Girling and Kellett [16]; first appeared in Beatley [15].

Table

The physical environment of cities, then, represents an essential requisite for creating biophilic cities. However, the true extent to which a city and its residents can be said to be biophilic, will depend on many other things, including whether and the extent to which citizens avail themselves of this nearby nature and the amount of time residents actually spend out-of-doors. How much they know about and care about this nearby nature is also an important indicator. A biophilic city, moreover, is also a city in which residents are actively involved in experiencing nature—e.g., hiking, bird watching, sky-gazing, gardening, among many other activities. Furthermore, citizens in biophilic cities have abundant opportunities to be engaged in restoring and caring for the nature around them. Table 2 presents a more comprehensive listing of the key qualities, not just those of physical design, by which a biophilic city might be described or defined (for more detail, see Beatley [15]). It is important to recognize that biophilic cities are not simply green cities. The presence of abundant nature is a necessary, but not sufficient condition, and the “philic” is as important as the bio. In biophilic cities, residents are directly and actively engaged in learning about, enjoying and caring for the nature around them and have developed important emotional connections with this nature.

Table 2. Some important dimensions of biophilic cities (and some possible indicators thereof). Summarized from Beatley [15].

Table

  1. Biophilic Cities and Urban Sustainability and Resilience

Sustainability has emerged over the last two decades especially as an important goal and frame of reference for cities, and both authors have written extensively about what urban sustainability entails [17,18]. Sustainability is ideally understood as a holistic frame of reference for guiding city development and for helping cities to do many things at once: to reduce their ecological footprints and resource needs, to deepen connections to landscape and place and to enhance livability and quality of life while expanding economic opportunities for the least-advantaged, among others.

Resilience has emerged as another important parallel concept and goal and an urban aspiration increasingly stated alongside (and sometimes replacing) sustainability. Given the impacts (current and potential) of global climate change, an increasingly volatile climate and the already serious range of disasters and hazards faced by cities around the world, global resource conflicts and constraints, long term decline in global oil supply and a global economic system that seems increasingly susceptible to vicissitudes and flux, resilience resonates well as a concept and goal, and we consider it a potent version or flavor of urban sustainability. What began with adaptation to disasters and hazards (many of us began speaking in terms of disaster-resistant and, later, disaster-resilient communities) has now broadened to discussions of resilient cities, that take into account the fuller range of potential shocks and stresses cities will likely face in the future, from water scarcity, rising food prices and higher summer temperatures [19]. Resilience has many meanings, of course, but at its core is the essential ability to successfully adapt to and respond to these shocks; the word derives from the Latin resiliere, meaning to jump back or rebound. Godschalk, while writing primarily from a natural hazards perspective, describes a resilient city as one that “would be capable of withstanding severe shock without either immediate chaos or permanent harm … While they might bend from hazards forces, they would not break. Composed of networked social communities and lifeline systems, resilient cities would become stronger by adapting to and learning from disasters” [20,21,22]. Resilience does not imply a return to dysfunctional or unsustainable community conditions, but adaptation to dynamic social and ecological conditions in ways that protect and enhance quality of life, long term ecological productivity and public and personal health.

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